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# 2nd and 3rd Poles

## CIRCUIT

Schematic: Op_Amp_fp23.asc
Open Loop Sch: Op_Amp_fp23 - OL.asc
Op Amp Symbol: Opamp_4.asy
Op Amp Shematic: Opamp_4.asc
Right Click on filename, select "Save link as...",

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## SPEC IT

 Intro Early on I was surprised to see some op amps would overshoot and ring, even with NO significant load or stray capacitance. What's going on here? Although op amps have an internal on-purpose 1st pole (low-pass filter), most devices have several unwanted higher frequency poles due to parasitic capacitances of internal transistors. How do these affect your circuit? Additional poles cause Negative Phase-Shifts (Time-Delays) which push the op amp's control loop toward INSTABILITY! Definitions fp23 - The 2nd and 3rd pole frequencies.• For convenience in the SPICE model, both poles are defined at the same frequency.• Typically, the fp23 poles are located at 2 to 5 times above fu. Unfortunately, you WON'T find the fp23 poles on the op amp datasheet. However, you'll see their impact on the Phase Margin - which you can read from the Open-Loop Gain plot (see below). Design Goal A stable amplifier output (minimial overshoot and ringing). Design Spec Overshoot < 10% given a 0.1V step voltage input.

## DESIGN IT

• Circuit Design
• Signal Gain: Kcl = (R2+R1)/R1 = 1V/V
• Choose: R1=10k
• Calc: R2=Open (1e9)
• Op Model Param
• Aol=1e6 fu=1e6 fp23=2.5e6 slew=10 vlim=1.5 ilim=0.04 Ro=20
• Circuit Test
• Input:  Vs = 0.1V voltage step
• Output:  Vo = 0.1V
• Expected Overshoot < 10% or Vo < 110mV max.

## TEST IT

• Run a Transient simulation. (.TRAN)
• Plot the output v(vo)
• Did it meet spec?
• If vo < 110mV, then PASS, else FAIL
•  DESIGN ISSUE: The output fails to meet the overshoot design spec!

## SOLVE IT

• Incrementally increase fp23 from 2e6 to 2.5e6, 3e6 and so on.
• Rerun the SPICE simulation after each increment.
• What value of fp23 is required to acheive the <10% design spec?

## THEORY REFRESH

• Op amps have an intentional 1st pole (low-pass filter) plus several unwanted poles at higher frequencies.
• 1st Pole
• A low-pass response created with a capacitor in the Gain/Pole stage.
• fp1 is a relatively low freq pole designed to limit the overall device bandwidth to fu.
• 2nd and 3rd Poles
• Multiple poles created by parasitic capacitances internal to the op amp.
• fp2,3 are typically located at 2 to 5 times above fu.
• You can approximate the added Negative Phase at the double pole fp23 by
• The Phase Margin tells you how close your circuit is to INSTABILITY!

• If PM = 0 deg, then you've got wild oscillations.
• If PM = 60 deg, then you've got a reasonable step response ~10% overshoot.
• Alternatively, we can ask what fp23 is needed for a specific PM?

• Example: What fp23 is required to create a Phase Margin = 60 deg with fu = 1e6?
fp23 = 1e6 / tan ( -(60-90)/2 ) = 3.7e6
• Check out the Open-Loop Magnitude and Phase from a typical op amp's datasheet.
• Real world Op Amps can have Phase Margins ranging from 40 to 60 deg causing overshoots of 30 to 10% roughly for unity gain applications.
• So what happened to our original design?
• Open-Loop Analysis - Let's get some insight using this design power tool. Here's one approach

• Open-Loop Analysis in a nutshell.
• Set the signal source Vs = 0V.
• Break the loop open between R1,R2 divider node and op amp neg input.
• Insert Vtest into the opened loop.
Important impedance condition around Vtest:  Z+ >> Z-
• Run an AC analysis and plot the Magnitude and Phase around the Open Loop, v(vfb)/v(vtest).
• Check the Phase shift (time delay) where the Magnitide crosses 1V/V (or 0dB)
• Design Goal:  Move Phase at 0dB more positively away from -360 (or +0) deg for less overshoot and ringing.
 Step Response Phase (deg) Oscillations - UNSTABLE -360 (or 0) 40% Overshoot -330 (or +30) 25% Overshoot -315 (or +45) 10% Overshoot -300 (or +60) No Overshoot - Optimal Response --270 (or +90)
• Discover fp23's impact on Phase using Open-Loop Analysis
• SPICE file:  op_amp_fp23 - OL.asc
• NO higher poles:  Run the AC sim with fp23 = 100e6 and plot v(vfb)/v(vtest).
• The Phase at 0dB (1V/V) should be close to -270 (or +90) deg, No overshoot.
• Add higher poles fp23:  Run the AC sim with fp23 = 2e6 and plot v(vfb)/v(vtest).
• The Phase at 0dB (1V/V) should be close to -320 (or +40) deg, Unacceptable overshoot.
• Set fp23=3.7e6 for PM=60 deg as calculated above:  Run the AC sim and plot v(vfb)/v(vtest).
• The Phase at 0dB (1V/V) should be closer to -300 (or +60) deg. Acceptable overshoot.
• Retest the closed loop circuit op_amp_fp23.asc.
Did your circuit meet the overshoot spec?
• Select a real-world op amp with a 60 deg Phase Margin from the device's Open-Loop Bode plot.

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